These viral infections can be passed on in different ways, including sexual contact
Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver. The condition can be self-limiting or can progress to fibrosis (scarring), cirrhosis or liver cancer. Hepatitis viruses are the most common cause of hepatitis in the world but other infections, toxic substances (e.g. alcohol, certain drugs), and autoimmune diseases can also cause hepatitis.
There are 5 main hepatitis viruses, referred to as types A, B, C, D and E. These 5 types are of greatest concern because of the burden of illness and death they cause and the potential for outbreaks and epidemic spread. In particular, types B and C lead to chronic disease in hundreds of millions of people and, together, are the most common cause of liver cirrhosis and cancer. This video from the World Hepatitis Alliance explains who is most at risk from Hepatitis.
Hepatitis C (HCV) is a blood borne virus which can be transmitted through sexual contact and the sharing of injecting equipment. Initial symptoms of HCV are similar to flu and include mild fever, joint and muscle pain, feeling and being sick and diarrhoea. This may then be followed by other symptoms such as jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), itchy skin, passing very dark urine and pale stools. Only 15-25% of people clear HCV spontaneously, so most people will need treatment to avoid chronic infection and the complications of chronic liver disease, cirrhosis and cancer.
Using clean needles & other drug using equipment is recommended as the most effective way to prevent the transmission of HCV during ChemSex activities. We also suggest:
Using a new condom for each sexual partner
Using condoms for anal and vaginal sex
Using latex gloves for fisting
Putting condoms on sex toys & replacing after each use
Avoiding the use of drugs as they increase blood flow and the risk of bleeding
PrEP does not protect against HCV or STIs. There is no vaccination against HCV. Treatments which cure HCV are available but must be taken every day for 8-12 weeks on average. Successful clearance of the virus does not provide immunity against re-infection with HCV.
Hepatitis B (HBV) is transmitted through exposure to infected blood, semen, and other body fluids. HBV can be transmitted from mothers with HBV to infants at the time of birth but this be avoided through vaccination of the baby at birth. It can also be transmitted from a family so household contacts should be vaccinated. Transmission may also occur through transfusions of HBV-contaminated blood and blood products, contaminated injections during medical procedures, and through injection drug use. HBV also poses a risk to healthcare workers who sustain accidental needle stick injuries while caring for infected-HBV patients. Safe and effective vaccines are available to prevent HBV and work in most people. Vaccinations are free and available to those who may be at risk of HBV and can be discussed with a healthcare professional in clinic.
Hepatitis A can be transmitted through oro-anal sex. It also is common in school children. It is usually a mild infection but can be avoided through safe and effective vaccinations. Vaccinations are free and available to those who may be at risk of Hepatitis A and can be discussed with a healthcare professional in clinic.
Hepatitis E and D are uncommon in the UK and not routinely screened for in this clinic.